Native Introduced Native and Introduced. Spotted knapweed as well as other species are rich in cnicin, a bitter compound found mainly in the leaves and often used to flavor the digestif amaro. “It’s nasty stuff,” he says. The seeds are the main form of dispersal. Cultural Control. It is also an invasive species in the United States, and particularly widespread in dryer regions of the West. Diffuse and spotted knapweed both have a taproot and grow to around 1 metre in height. Spotted Knapweed reproduces by seed. Allelopathic properties can alter soil chemistry, preventing the growth of other plants. Dead plant material can increase risk of fire. As spotted knapweed seeds mature in late summer and fall, they can be spread on mowing equipment and in infested hay, seed, and gravel, or by hitchhiking on vehicles, other equipment, and even clothing. Culpeper said that "knapweed gently heals up running sores, both cancerous and fistulous, and will do the same for scabs of the head." It can be found in disturbed open sites, grasslands, overgrazed rangelands, roadsides and logged areas. It has become a serious problem of pastures and rangeland in the western United States. This tool consists of a row of spikes at the end of a spring-loaded pedal. This herb also has been found to inhibit lipid peroxidation (the process in which free radicals steal electrons from fats within cell membranes causing cell damage) and xanthine oxidase (an enzyme involved in purine metabolism which reduces the production of uric acid) which would help  with conditions like gout. A primary reason for the rapid spread of knapweed in Montana was the fact that it was an introduced species and, therefore, lacked the complex of natural enemies, i.e. The bracts also have distinctive dark vertical stripes. Spotted knapweed has hairy, deeply-cut leaves and purple flowers (occasionally white) on one or more upright stems. Knapweed reproduces by seed and can regenerate from the crown as well as by perennial root spread. It usually bolts in the second year, producing branched stems. Spotted knapweed grows up to 5 feet tall and has a thick tap root. Centaurea stoebe, the spotted knapweed or panicled knapweed, is a species of Centaurea native to eastern Europe. Blooms June through July. Click below on a thumbnail map or name for subspecies profiles. Spotted knapweed is a serious threat to the rangelands of the western United States. Russian knapweed is a creeping perennial that reproduces from seed and vegetative root buds. Spotted knapweed (Centaurea stoebe) is a plant belonging to the sunflower (Asteraceae) family. Description. Southern, north-central, and eastern Missouri. It can form dense cover in prairies, pastures, and open habitats. It outcompetes native plant species, reduces native plant and animal biodiversity, and decreases forage production for livestock and wildlife. The leaves and the stem are covered in hairs and are grey-green in colour. Don’t pull spotted knapweed without gloves. Reproduction is by seed. Minutus prefers diffuse knapweed while obtusus prefers spotted knapweed. overview; data; media; articles; maps; names; Biodiversity Institute of ontario. maculosa Common names: spotted knapweed Centaurea maculosa (spotted knapweed) is a biennial to short-lived perennial (family Asteraceae). Flower heads are made up of 40 to 100 purple (or rarely white) ray flowers. Think of all the ferns, grasses, sedges, lilies, peas, sunflowers, nightshades, milkweeds, mustards, mints, and mallows — weeds and wildflowers — and many more! It was commonly used in the 14th century as an appetite stimulant, a sore throat remedy, and as a topical wound healing agent. Spotted knapweed prefers well-drained, light-textured soils that receive summer rainfall, including open forests dominated by ponderosa pine and Douglas fir, and prairie habitats dominated by Idaho fescue, bluebunch . Cattle and other animals avoid eating it so it can cause large reductions in available food for grazing animals. Depending on geographical location flowers bloom between June and September. IMPORTANT INFORMATION ABOUT SPOTTED KNAPWEED. Wildlife and most livestock find it unpalatable, so as it spreads animals have less food. Mouse populations have increased in some areas as Knapweed seed head bio-control species have become … Spotted Knapweed. Both species of Knapweed may readily be distinguished from Thistles by the absence of spines and prickles. (September 1997) Please pass this message on to anyone you know who may be doing knapweed control and encourage them to wear gloves with pulling any of the Centaureas as a precaution.. 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